Listed Buildings – Wolverton

Thanks to Andrew Lambert for this idea. I am going to go on a tour of the listed buildings in the area. I’ll start with Wolverton, then do Old Wolverton, Stony Stratford and New Bradwell.

I can’t help but comment on the arbitrary nature of the listing process. The original Engine Shed did not get listed and was consequently flattened to make a Tesco car park, but the Triangle Building, started in 1845 and much enlarged and adapted over the years, makes the list. The school of 1840 is not listed, nor is the Royal Engineer of 1841. Why is the Aylesbury Street School of 1906 listed and not the Moon Street School of 1908?

The information below is presented as links to the British Heritage site. The information is under crown copyright and cannot be reproduced here. Just as well perhaps, since there are a number of instances where the descriptions are factually wrong.

Area map of listed buildings

Blue Bridge

The Blue Bridge was a farm track from Stacey Hill Farm to the fields sloping down to Bradwell Brook.

Church of St George the Martyr

The building and history of the church has been covered in various posts.

Classroom at Wyvern First School

Former Railway Works Building

In 1845 the LBR used the land on the east side of the line to build a new shed. In time this expanded to fill the whole triangle area between the canal, the Stratford Road and the old railway line. It was henceforward known as the Triangle Building.

Reading Room

I rather think that it would take some serious archaeological work to identify which part of this building was the original Reading Room of 1840. Back then it was certainly a single storey structure and the road and canal bridge were lower. The openings for doors and windows do not resemble anything visible on the surviving planss from the 840s.

Former Royal Train Shed

Funny what the word “Royal” can do. This long shed and workshop was built in the 1880s when the main line was diverted and sat on the embankment above the Park. It was used in the 20th century to store the Royal Train when it was not in use, thus giving the building a significance which it might not otherwise have had.

Church Institute

Park Keeper’s lodge

This is the best photo I have at the moment, surrounded by boards, empty and awaiting some fate.

Methodist Church

Railway Bridge over Canal

The barn was built in the 1840s when the new farm house was built on top of the hill. (Formerly Stacey Farm had been closer to Bradwell Brook.) It was a large timbered structure and was given a Grade II listing. Unfortunately it burned down in a fire in 1996 so the preservation order didn’t help very much!

Stacey Hill Farm House

The farm house, built I understand, by the very young Charles Aveline is now occupied by the Milton Keynes Museum and can be visited during opening hours.

Skew Bridge

Garden Pavilion

I haven’t got much idea of what this is. I assume from the description that it was a garden structure in the grounds of the Vicarage.

Viaduct

Wyvern First School

The girls and infants continued to use the 1840 school on Creed Street until 1906 when this was built. At the time it was Wolverton’s grandest school until the Secondary School opened at the end of Moon street in 1908. The Creed Street School did service as a Market Hall until the Agora was opened.

Wyvern Nursery

This was in 1896 the new Boys School and remained so until about 1946 when the Secondary Modern came into being. From that time on all the Wolverton schools were co-ed.

The Viaduct

After 173 years heavy train traffic still thunders across the Ouse viaduct. It’s another triumph of Victorian engineering. It is Wolverton’s most significant monument from the 19th century.

The viaduct is 660 feet in length and rises 57 feet above the river and comprises 6 arches, each with a 60 feet span. The course of the railway line took it along a bend in the river but on the advice of an experienced surveyor, Bryan Donkin, and in discussion with the Radcliffe Trust, the course of the river was straightened and the embankment extended over the old course of the river.

The shaded line represents the old course of the river and the dotted line shows the new, straighter course of the stream. One of the consequences of this was that Mead Mill, which is recorded in Domesday and had had a working life of 1,000 years, was taken out of commission. From 1838 only Wolverton Mill remained in service. Mead Mill was inhabited for a decade or so after this, but eventually the buildings were torn down and the site disappears from history.
The new railway line split some of the farms on the eastern side and compensation had to be agreed and bridges built over the line, so negotiations were quite lengthy. However, an agreement was signed on 4th February 1835 and work began after the Act of Parliament on 3rd july 1835. The work took three years and was one of the last sections to be completed in time for the eventual opening of the railway line in September 1838.
So for three years Wolverton had to deal with the experience of navvies. The term came from the canal building days of a generation earlier, when the labourers who dug the canals wer called navigators. This new army of labouring men were little different from their predecessors. they were a tough, hard working and rootless bunch of characters who were prone to splurging thier pay in the local fleshpots. Most of them were accommodated in shacks at Denbeigh Hall, but there were some wooden shacks at Wolverton and there is probably little doubt that these rowdies filled the inns of Stony Stratford on paydays.
One can reflect that these huge embankments were built entirely by hand and shovel. There were no mechanical diggers or earth movers at this end of the 19th century. Some of this activity was recorded by the artist J C Bourne who left us two images of the work. The first here shows a land slip on the Wolverton side where the soil gave way as the problems of building on the old river bed had been underestimated. Once the got below the level of sand and gravel and blue clay, they came to a clay level that simply would not hold. Mixing the clay with more resilient material did not work and eventually they solved the problem by building five foot trenches on either side and filling them with coarser material to prevent any further spread. Incidentally, the buildings on the left hand side are probably Mead Mill.
The second drawing shows the almost completed viaduct with some of the arch forms visible and some scaffolding still in place.
South of the river there were still more serious problems. the contractors brought in huge quantities of slag and shale to fill the embankment and one night the whole embankment spontaneously combusted, producing a phenomenal sight for the villagers. This was caused by the iron sulphate decomposing in the embankment.
The Wolverton embankment and viaduct, along with the Kilsby Tunnel proved to be the most difficult engineering projects for the new railway. They were therefore the last to be completed and until September 1838, when the line officially opened, passengers had to alight at Denbigh Hall and travel by coach to Rugby.